It was also the first mass-produced unibody automobile, meaning that the rounded metal skin supported structural loads rather than relying on any internal steel frame. More than fifty years after its launch, the DS is still idolized particularly by designers for its idiosyncratic functionality resolved within an elegant form. Barthes summarized this poetic integration quite succinctly:.
It is well known that smoothness is always an attribute of perfection because its opposite reveals a technical and typically human operation of assembling. The styling department began by crafting small-scale conceptual models of the new prototype. Curved surfaces had to be manually enlarged to full-scale by measuring points offset from these smaller clay mock-ups, then re-plotted onto a life-sized drawing board. The plotted points were interpolated using French Curves or flexible spline rulers to arrive at a best-fit approximation.
Plywood cross sections would be cutout and assembled crosswise, creating a intersecting matrix formwork. The skeleton was fleshed out with clay and further sculpted to create a detailed master model of the car. In its final form, the master model would continue to undergo subtle shaping and refinement at the hands of skilled plasters before being frozen in its final shape, ready for production.
Extracting the relevant geometry and ensuring it fitted seamlessly within the overall assembly would entail similarly onerous techniques of translation. However, the often qualatative interpretation of the geometry introduced significant room for inconsistency, discrepancy, and human error.
The company needed a common geometrical language to store each part in terms of numbers, rather than relying on time consuming and error prone process of manual replication.
Fresh from his PhD studies, the young mathematician was tasked with devising a system of equations, so that shapes could be reliably stored and communicated amongst the designers and engineers, as well as input into the primitive computers that drove the new milling machines. De Casteljau struggled with the problem at first. His epiphany occurred when he realized that, rather than defining a curve by points along its length, it could be accurately plotted and controlled by manipulating a few points around its vicinity.
New poles pink connect these points and, once again, points are created at the same proportional distance along them. New poles and points are generated until one final point remains. The process can be repeated at each interval of subdivision along the poles, ad infinitum, to produce a smooth curve. The formulas describing this differential geometry may be mathematically advanced, but they can be intuitively understood see Figure 6. Points are created at proportional distances ie.
New lines connect these points and, once again, a new set of points is created at the same proportional distance along them. New poles and points are generated until a final point remains.
Mathematically, the process can be repeated at all intervals ad infinitum, thanks to computation , plotting a smooth course of curvature. Upon making his discovery in , de Casteljau immediately rushed to the workshops to set about recreating the the hood of a 2CV from mathematical data alone, only to find that the modelers were unwilling to cooperate.
How could a mere ten lines achieve what others before him had unsuccessfully attempted in sixty pages of equations? How could this be a worthy method? If valid, it threatened to replace the black arts of auto production with cold hard computation and, in doing so, make the influential role of master modelers obsolete.
The young mathematician did eventually convince the company that his elegant algorithm was the ultimate solution they had sought by replicating ever more complex auto parts from numerical data, culminating in a full body model of the GS. Welcome or not, the computational curve had arrived. It was roughly fifteen years before he was personally credited with his discovery. Renault also found the process of enshrining the geometry of each car in a master model and transferring it to the various parts fraught with internal disagreements, retouching, delays, and expense.
In addition to curved drawing tools, his department had begun to use simple mathematical constructs, equivalent to cartesian grids onto which regular mathematical curves — arcs, ellipses, and parabolas — were plotted. Once formulaically enmeshed within the two-dimensional grid, these curves could be morphed by mathematically deforming the grid around them.
But when dealing with more complex real-world curves in 3D — the edge of a door panel, for example — it was impossible to apply this method. The fundamental problem remained: Parts of the cylinder outside the cube have omitted for clarity. These geometries could be mathematically defined by encompassing them within a cube left. By mathematically transforming the cube, the curve inside is also reshaped right.
In practice, three vectors pink, blue, yellow between four vertices were only necessary for this construct. Although this imaginary contraption was impractical, it proved conceptually useful. A 3D parametric curve can be expressed as the intersection of two cylinders see Figure 7. The center and radii points of these cylinders correspond to vertices of a cube, encompassing the curve within.
As he developed the idea, he found only three connected edges of the cube were needed to construct his irregular curves, and that he could formulate them as polynomials. Making more complicated curves, simply required more interconnected lines. The subsequent integration of their geometry into mainstream computing has directly benefitted every design field.
Of course a car, being a three dimensional form, is not merely defined by a series of composite curves. Sheet metal body panels, for example, vary in their curvature at almost every point. Defining only the perimeter curves of each part does not describe its interior contours. Sand is packed into an open-topped wooden box. Two of the opposing top edges of the box are curved so that when a wooden plank or template is dragged across them, it scrapes off the remaining sand to leave a smoothly curved surface.
Taking a grid of points black , he established a set of curves in one direction yellow. Points blue at equal proportions along these rails form curves traveling in the opposite direction pink.
Recursively sweeping across the rails at every proportional distance defines a surface. Again, he formulated a mathematical construction of his hypothetical tooling see Figure 9.
Between these, another pair of curves is inserted to yield four unique curves in one direction. Points at equal proportion along each of the four curves can be connected across to create another curve running in the transverse direction analogous to the template being dragged between the outer rails. As the transverse curve travels across the four guide curves, the shape morphs along them and defines the contours of a smooth freeform surface.
The matrix of control points forms an underlying control net with vertices that can be easily moved to shape and sculpt the resultant surface. By the company had acquired numerically controlled milling machines, but lacked a mathematical language to input the complex shapes of its streamlined cars, with all their space age tail fins and voluptuous styling. Schoenberg for smoothly — albeit laboriously — plotting graphs of actuarial data. The six curve segments are each controlled by four points the relative area of color in each control point represents to he amount of influence.
The fact that each segment between the knots black diamonds shares points influenced by other segments blends them into one continuously smooth spline. Like a Bezier curve, the B-spline is controlled by a group of linked control points. The B in B-spline stands for its multiple basis functions. Each defines an overlapping portion along the spline.
Hudson Dutra Rezende, M. Few dermatologic problems carry as much emotional overtones as the complaint of hair loss and the best way of alleviating the distress related to hair loss is to treat it effectively. It was only in that the term dermato-trichologist was proposed for board-certified dermatologists dealing with the scientific study of the hair and scalp, in contrast to the trichologist who is rather associated with laity and cosmetics than with medical professionalism, or — worse —offers opportunities to possible imposters with a primary commercial interest.
Trichiatrists differ from trichologists by virtue of being physicians. The quality and stringency of their graduate medical training is identical to that of other physicians. The credentials of a trichiatrist should include:. Trichologist, Dermatotrichologist, or Trichiatrist? May 1 st through July 31 st Dr. The clinic is run with Swiss efficiency and is beautifully equipped with state-of-the art facilities and excellent supporting staff.
With from left to right Drs. This is a serious mistake: With Professor Ralph M. Mabe Freitas Gouveia, M. The luxury hotel in Moscow city centre was originally commissioned by Joseph Stalin, and was designed by the leading Soviet experts on steel-framed highrise construction. It is the second tallest of the neoclassical Stalin-era "Seven Sisters", and was the tallest hotel in the world at the time of its construction It also houses about 1, original paintings by the most prominent Russian artists of the first half of the 20 th century.
The only way to achieve success is to have a firm foundation of principles to build upon, and the right attitude about how to achieve your goals. The controversial ballet about the Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev who defected the Soviet Union in and died of AIDS-related complications in France in finally had its premiere on the stage of the Bolshoi theatre, despite being pulled from the schedule at the last minute in July, and its director Kirill Serebrennikov placed under house arrest.
Restaurant Chef Vladimir Mukhin is in the vanguard of a new wave of young Russian culinary talents. Traditional Russian produce marries luxe ingredients to create innovative dishes. But this is something of global knowledge. What people might not know, is that he is an amazing host. Since the first day, I had a very good time. He creates a very good environment in the office, and I felt very comfortable to be by his side, to learn and be a part of all consultations, including interacting with patients and doing some procedures.
All this great experience is situated in Switzerland, which is an amazing and beautiful country, that I had the pleasure and opportunity to visit many parts of on the weekends. I can definitely recommend this Traineeship to anyone that is interested in Trichology. Enjoying scenic Switzerland mountains, lake, and city of Lucerne and Swiss culinary specialities assorted cold cuts, traditional Swiss cheese fondue, and Zug cherry gateau.
At the right with Professors Nagwa M. The hair care industry is equally capable of delivering active compounds directed toward meeting the consumer demand for maintenance of hair cosmesis and quality. Finally, basic scientists interested in the biology of hair growth and pigmentation have exposed the hair follicle as a highly accessible and unique model for the study of age-related effects.
At Giza , the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the the Three Pyramids of Giza left and the Great Sphinx of Giza right. The area served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the 2nd millennium BC. At the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The original collection was established in the late 19 th century under Auguste Mariette.
The objects were finally transferred in to the current building at Tahrir Square , which is the first purpose-built museum edifice in the world.
The ground floor takes the visitor on a chronological tour through the collections, while the objects on the upper floor are grouped according to tomb or category.
Exhibits here include the treasures of Tutankhamun: Old Cario by night: Al Moez Street left is one of the most amazing streets in Islamic Cairo with more than 25 Islamic monuments of interest and a bustling night life. Upper Egyptian folklore music performance right. The Upper Egyptians are popularly assumed to be rural simpletons, physically stronger, and less sophisticated than the Lower Egyptians.
Selfie with Professors Yuliya Ovcharenko l. Traditionally, the medical focus has been either on hair loss, or on the condition of the scalp in terms of specific dermatologic conditions. In fact, the proximate structural arrangement of the scalp and hair leads to an interdependent relationship between the two. At co-authored poster of Dr. Maria Fernanda Gavazzoni from Brazil. It is one of the most popular visiting sites In Japan, attracting a large number of visitors annually.
In , the pavilion was burned down by a novice monk, Who then attempted suicide. He survived, and was taken into custody, but finally released because of mental illness.
While the pavilion, dating from before , was a national monument that had been spared destruction throughout history, the arson shocked Japan.
The story is narrated by the disturbed acolyte in question, who is afflicted with a stutter, and who recounts his obsession with beauty and a growing urge to destroy it: Japanese folk dance performance at Congress Gala dinner. At hotel bar with Prof. Vicky Joliffe, from London, UK. Aging Male and Female Hair Kyoto The Intrinsic Connection Kyoto I always knew that being abroad learning from any worldwide recognized dermatologist would definitely make me a better doctor and improve my carrier, but I must confess: My friends know I worked very hard to make this dream come true and now I just feel extremely thankful and rewarded!
Everything was nothing but perfect! To the hard task of summarizing my Trichology Treineeship in Switzerland into one single testimonial, I chose a quotation from a Chinese teacher, also arguably the most influential Chinese philosopher ever: Choose a job you love and you will never work a day in your life.
Hudson Dutra Rezende from left to right: Keeping your goal before you. Predetermining your mind to success. Seizing every opportunity to practice. Visit to the Titlis: Il barbiere di Siviglia Oper von Gioacchino Rossini.
To the Greeks, snakes were sacred beings of wisdom, healing, and resurrection. Asclepios bore a rod wreathed with a snake, which became associated with healing. Later religious movement claimed links to Asclepios. The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. The University of Zurich was founded in , when the existing colleges of theology, the Carolinum founded by Huldrych Zwingli in , law, and medicine were merged with a new faculty of Philosophy.
The University allowed women to attend philosophy lectures from , and admitted the first female doctoral student in Opened at the turn of the last century, the Grand Hotel quickly became one of the most popular venues in Nuremberg.
Brought before Allied judges, leading representatives of the Nazi regime, and later doctors, judges, and diplomats were tried here for war crimes.
The trials are regarded today as a milestone in the establishment of international law against crimes of war and crimes against humanity.
World history was written in the courtroom, where leaders of the Nazi regime had to take responsibility for their crimes before an international Military Tribunal November 29, , through October 1, Today, the courtroom remains functional. Born in Nuremberg, he established his reputation and influence across Europe at an early age due to his high-quality woodcut prints.
From he was patronized by emperor Maximilian I. A self-portrait painted early in , just before his 29 th birthday, has become fixed in the popular imagination, and is considered the most personal, and iconic of his self-portraits, styling himself with resemblance to early representations of a long-haired and bearded Christ Ref. The Error of the Long-Haired Jesus? Lawrence Cathedral is a medieval church of the former free Imperial city of Nuremberg.
It is one of the most prominent of the churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria. The building and furnishing of the church was cared of by the city council and the wealthy citizens of Nuremberg, which is probably the reason why the art treasures of the church were spared during the iconoclasm in the Reformation period. The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored. Thank you for the opportunity to share with me your knowledge and your days, also introduce me to your family Mother and pet pug Paco this month.
We had excellent days and interesting cases. I will take this learning into my heart and know that I can help many patients in Brazil. With Marija Berisha, view on the three main churches of the old town: Welcome address of Dr. Fernanda and her enthusiasm are to be commended for the excellent organization of a successful and unforgettable 1-day course on alopecia.
Thanks to her passion and that of her invited speakers, including my former Dermato-Trichology trainee August 2 through 31, Dr.
To the leader in the Brazilianprescription drug market, health and life quality are indispensable for the individual to realize a fulfilled life by virtue of his own strength.
Therefore,Biolab commits itself to the research and development, and production and commercialization of respective pharmaceutics, also for hair growth and quality. At the same time, the municipality has been classified as the richest city of Brazil, reflecting in its demographics,economy, education, and boasting numerable notable people in the fields of music, show business, sports, and politics. Dinner at trendy restaurant with residents and faculty of the Department of Dermatology of the Universidade Federal Fluminense.
The Acropolis of Athens located on an extremely rocky outcrop above the city contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historical significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. Sightseeing opportunity of the cultural heritage of the Greek people was kindly provided by the congress organization.
Marble votive relief depicting the various phases in the curing of a patient BC. Found in the sanctuary of Amphiaraos at Oropos. The shape of a temple, and the panel on a tall base in the background denote the sanctity of the area in which the healing events are taking place. Spending time with someone eager about learning is definitely heavenly.
Thank you for the countless laughs and for your great sense of humor. My appointments with the patients will never be the same! Of course, nothing would be possible without patients, so here goes my huge thankfulness to them. My best wishes to your team, Dr.
Antonia Fellas, Marija, Danijela, and Biella, who treated me as if I were a member of this select group. I hope meeting you soon again.
Pedro Colli performing intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in patient with alopecia areata. When the Fair was over, the new urban district was dubbed Park of Nations, and is now one of the largest urban re-development projects in Europe. With international colleagues in the quest for excellence in clinical Trichology and invited speakers from left to right: Das Buch von San Michele.
Satyr mit Weinpokal , Carlo die Cesare del Palagio He is a good doctor and teacher, who not only knows and understands trichology and dermatology very well, but is also willing to share his work, knowledge, passion and humor. It is a truly inspirational experience which will guide my pursuit of the subspecialty.
And of course, to the appreciation of arts, too! In mutual appreciation of art: A leading figure of the Impressionist movement and perhaps the most celebrated landscape painter of his age, Monet dedicated his life to capturing the subtleties of the natural world. Legend has it that the ancient Chinese were looking into wrinkles for patterns that resembled Chinese characters. In , when the Wilden Mann was first mentioned in records, it was not the refined place it represents today. In fact, it was a bar without a tavern licence.
Later it became an inn. It was not until the 19 th century with the rise of tourism in Switzerland that the Wilden Mann was transformed into a first-class address. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea.
The university has been consistently ranked as one of the premier universities in South Korea and regarded in both national and international university rankings. The new hospital opened April The Virgin Mary appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous on 18 occasions at Lourdes, which became a major place of Roman Catholic pilgrimage and miraculous healings.
International invited speakers at Leeum Gallery from left to right: At traditional Korean dinner and social gathering: When friends gather round from afar do we not rejoice? The palace has held a guard-changing ceremony since after historical research by leading historians. The ceremony held if front of the Daehanum Gate of the palace is a tradition similar to the Changing of Guards at Buckingham Palace and offers a special opportunity to experience royal culture.
Traditional Korean Dance developed under the influence of both Korean shamanic dance and Joseon Dynasty court performance. Hamamelis Virginiana-Based Scalp Care. Tiberius mainly ruled from there until his death. The palace is situated in the very northeast of the island at meters elevation.
Access is only possible by foot, and involves an uphill walk of about 2 kilometers from Capri town. According to Roman historian Suetonius AD , the villa is also the place where Tiberius engaged in debauchery.
Giacomo , sunk with its extended buildings within the narrow valley between the Castiglione and the Tuoro hills, expresses the mediaeval and monastic period of Capri in its most noble and monumental form. The water was not changed for three days, and when the flowers were thrown away, the prior noticed that the water had acquired a wonderful fragrance.
That water became the first perfume of Capri. The Villa was built at the turn of the 20th century by the Swedish physician Dr Axel Munthe Of himself, Munthe said: What is the secret of success?
Villa San Michele, the Bedroom. Probably the most enchanting of the rooms for its unique combination of ancient and newer objects. The room is divided into two parts by an arcade and a middle column, a recurrent architectural motif of the Villa. The 15th century wrought-iron bed is of Sicilian origin, and was presumably a camp-bed.
On the tables and on the walls are ancient Roman artifacts. Furnishing is antique too, dating back to the 15th and 18th centuries. Contingent Influences of Communication and Trustworthiness Reputations. Interaction-based modeling and simulation of large, complex biological, information, social, and technical BIST systems Design and analysis of algorithms and computational complexity Social networks, graph theory Wireless and next generation communication networks High performance and grid computing, especially pertaining to BIST systems Computational epidemiology, computational economics.
Economic and social impact of influenza mitigation strategies by demographic class. A unified approach to scheduling on unrelated parallel machines. Predecessor existence problems for finite discrete dynamical systems. A framework for evaluating epidemic forecasts. Using data-driven agent-based models for forecasting emerging infectious diseases.
Epidemics — Special Issue on Ebola Challenge. Parallel algorithms for switching edges in heterogeneous graphs. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing. Energy Demand Model for Residential Sector: A First Principles Approach. A comparison of multiple behavior models in a simulation of the aftermath of an improvised nuclear detonation. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.
International Journal of Transportation. Labeled cuts in graphs. A key tool for outbreak response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Inhibiting diffusion of complex contagions in social networks: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. What factors might have led to the emergence of Ebola in West Africa?
An interactive high-performance computing framework for data-intensive epidemic modeling. A Dirichlet process model for classifying and forecasting epidemic curves. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. Modeling of Wildlife Associated Zoonoses: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. High-Performance biocomputing for simulating the spread of contagion over large contact networks.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Prediction of an Epidemic Curve: A Supervised Classification Approach. Statistical Communications in Infectious Diseases. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks. International Journal of Autonomous Adaptive Communications. Information integration to support policy informatics. Modeling and analyzing social network dynamics using stochastic discrete graphical dynamical systems.
Theoretical Computer Science, Special Issue. An integrated modeling environment to study the co-evolution of networks, individual behavior and epidemics. Detail in Network Models of Epidemiology: Journal of Biological Dynamics. A cyber environment to support pandemic planning and response. Computational epidemiology in a connected world. Scheduling on unrelated machines under tree-like precedence constraints.
Complexity of reachability problems for finite discrete dynamical systems. Journal of Computer and System Sciences. Parametric probabilistic routing in sensor networks.
A mobility and traffic generation framework for modeling and simulating ad hoc communication networks. Approximating the connectivity between nodes when simulating large-scale mobile ad hoc radio networks.
The Journal of Systems and Software 73 Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks. The distance-2 matching problem and its relationship to the MAC-layer capacity of ad hoc wireless networks. Nordic Journal of Computing. University of Colorado Boulder Architect, Member technical staff Hewlett Packard labs Present: An Internet of Things Analytics Benchmark.
Best Student Paper Award. Methods for Power Management in Commercial Buildings. Application of data analytics to heat transfer phenomena for optimal design and operation of complex systems. Creating a Sustainable IT Ecosystem: Enabling Next-Generation Urban Infrastructures. Birla Institute of Technology and Science — Stat, Indian Statistical Institute. Weekend classes for the professional program. Statistical Methods, Fall Risk Management, Spring Advanced Topics in Mathematical Finance: PI on various federally and privately funded grants and contracts, responsible for managing budgets and expenditures and compliance reporting to sponsors.
Developed and taught 15 courses, and supervised several doctoral students during my academic career. My research continues to be applied and interdisciplinary in nature and is widely published in journals across multiple disciplines. While in academia at Virginia Tech developed various decision support systems including a contamination management system for the Department of Energy, a performance management system for Virginia Department of Social Services, and a graph based model management system for managing mathematical models for a broad spectrum of applications.
These efforts resulted in an award of an honorary professorship at the Russian Armenian University in Yerevan. Promoted academia-industry collaboration through experience that spans verticals across consulting, academia, administration, and entrepreneurship including management and technology consulting, international business, information systems, research and analysis, and quantitative modeling.
Lead the development of the performance management practice at Entigence Corporation. Helped grow the company from 6 employees to 27 employees between the US and India. Entigence India also provides technology solutions for business data analytics for US clients. Set financial metrics and targets, plan budgets, conduct forecasting and monitor progress towards targets and provide recommendations for business strategy. Oversaw the deployment of Lyterati at the enterprise level at several universities.
Provided strategy for the transition from document-based data tracking and administrative processes for faculty information to searchable and reportable transactional information, a much-needed challenging initiative that universities in the US are increasingly adopting. Worked extensively with Provosts Faculty Affairs , Deans, Department Chairs, and Faculty at several universities to assist in the launching of this disruptive initiative.
Provided metrics-driven advisory services to C-Level executives in industry to develop strategies for performance management. At a Fortune company with revenues of 30B dollars helped design and implement a performance management scorecard for a Sr.
VP of an international division who managed the merchant networks. For the Chief Operating Officer at a large university helped design and implement a performance management scorecard for all operations under the COO. At a for-profit university, helped design the outcomes assessment strategy and implement it. Parviz Ghandforoush and Tarun K. Decision Support Systems, 50 1: Ghandforoush Parviz, Tarun K. Tegarden, and Ramaswamy R.
Sen Rumy and Tarun K. Dutta, Amitava and Tarun K. Watson CRC Press, , pp. Sen, Rumy, Tarun K. Chari, Kaushal and Tarun K. Kaushal, Chari and Tarun K. Refenes, , Wiley Publications, pp. Hicks, and Tarun K. Sen, Tarun and Warren J. Sen, Tarun and James A. A Curricular Framework for Professional Schools. The Time is Now.
Ivy League PhDs on staff. We offer premium PhD-level consultation, statistical analysis, tutoring, and research services, along with dissertation editing.
The PhD Accounting program is designed for students seeking training in the most advanced issues in accounting, both theoretical and applied. It is intended to prepare them primarily for tenure-track positions in research-oriented universities. The program requires hands-on training in accounting.
Our Graduate Program in Biology offers a diverse range of integrative training opportunities for students seeking a Ph.D. degree in cutting-edge biological research. The Minghui Yu Memorial Conference, organized by doctoral students at Statistics Department of Columbia University, will take place on Saturday, April 28th at the Faculty House in the Presidential Ballroom. Minghui Yu was a doctoral student at the statistics.
SLS Undergraduates Michelle Akamine and Victoria Lee Receive Research Awards for Projects on Child Second Language Acquisition Drs. Kyle, LaFlair, and Ziegler Awarded TOEFL COE Grant PhD Student Awarded NSF Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant Develop Your Expertise as a Language Teacher Learn Cutting Edge Research Methods Learn a New Language While You Earn Your Degree SLS . The University of Iowa shooting took place in Iowa City, Iowa, United States on November 1, The gunman was Gang Lu, a year-old former graduate student at the University. He killed four members of the university's faculty and a student; he left another student seriously injured, before committing suicide.